Barriers and facilitators impacting the uptake of computer-based simulation in pharmacy education


  • Ahmed Gharib University of Tasmania
  • Ivan Bindoff University of Tasmania
  • Gregory Peterson University of Tasmania
  • Mohammed Salahudeen University of Tasmania


Background: The majority of existing research in computer-based simulation tools in pharmacy education, has little to no focus on understanding barriers and facilitators which impact the practical integration of this technology into curriculum. Despite several products being available, it has been observed that implementation in curriculum remains low, with significant resistance to change. As such, it is beneficial to better understand the various barriers and facilitators that affect the implementation process from the perspective of key stakeholders (educational organisations, educators, and students).

Aims: To infer any pre-existing known barriers and facilitators which may impact the uptake of computer-based simulation in pharmacy education.

Methods: A systematic narrative review was conducted via searching five major databases, including grey literature sources. This is followed by a systematic thematic analysis approach based on the (Braun and Clarke, 2006) guidelines to extract the barrier and facilitator themes.

Results: We identified 50 studies, and four reports that met the inclusion criteria. Forty themes were grouped under four main groups (facilitators; cultural barriers; academic barriers; and process barriers), each theme linked to a particular stakeholder group as reported. The most recurring barrier theme was ‘Resistance to change’ (cultural barrier), while “Realism” was the most frequent facilitator. 

Conclusions: This review attempts to infer from literature different key stakeholders views regarding barriers and facilitators impacting the implementation of computer-based simulations in pharmacy education. Further investigation will now be undertaken through surveys and interviews to better understand the issues and ultimately help overcome them. 





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