The Future Technology in Patient Reconstructive Surgery: 4D printing.
Purpose: Bone augmentation is a procedure in a patient who has been affected by tissue defects. The
aim of this study is to demonstrate which technique and materials are suitable for tissue
reconstruction by using novel printing technologies.
Methodology: A literature search was performed using the PubMed and Medline databases, with the
keywords of ((((((3D printing) AND (4d printing)) OR (5d printing))) AND (materials))
AND (techniques)) AND (surgery) has performed. A total of 18 papers were included in the
following review until March 2022.
Results: Shape-memory polymers using in recent bioprinters are useable as the prosthesis’s
fabrications due to the treatments of patients in reconstructive surgeries. These methods
exhibit the precise hard and soft tissue implanted in orthopedic sites as well as the oral and
maxillofacial region. 3D and recent 5D printed tissue grafts permit precise design in complex
human body defects, due to trauma or cancer. The accuracy to cover the defect, modified
these techniques, from the range of diagnostics towards ultimate treatment plans, for a
patient; with the feature of less post-operative discomfort and expedited human body tissue
Conclusion: Recent research on different techniques of multi-dimension applications have shown positive
results in the tissue engineering field, which needs more researches in the case of quality,
efficiency, and accessibility to surgeons.