ICT in India’s Elementary Schools: The Vision and Realities
Keywords:India, comparative education, elementary education, ICT use
As India aspires to emerge as the information and communication technology (ICT) leader among the knowledge-based societies, it does so with the education of children as a primary concern. With the passage and enforcement of the 2009 Right of Children to Free and Compulsory Education Act (RTE), the Indian government has affirmed its commitment to ensuring universal elementary education for all Indian children. Part of India’s RTE commitment includes the vision of preparing Indian children with 21st century skills such as learning to operate a computer. Yet, realities exist, including a lack of empirical research on Indian elementary schools, which impedes this vision. The purpose of this literature review is to examine the barriers to and possibilities of ICT programs in India’s elementary schools.E
Annual Status of Education Report (ASER). (2009). New Delhi: Pratham Resource Center.
Azim Premji Foundation. (2004). The social context of elementary education in rural India report. Bangalore, India: Azim Premji Foundation. Retrieved from http://www.azimpremjifoundation.org/
Azim Premji Foundation. (2008). A study of computer assisted learning program. Bangalore, India: Azim Premji Foundation. Retrieved from http://www.azimpremjifoundation.org/
Balakrishnan, P. (2004). Measuring productivity in manufacturing sector. Economic and
Political Weekly 39(1), 1465-1471.
Banerjee, A., Cole, S., Duflo, E., & Linden, L. (2007). Remedying education: evidence from two randomized experiments in India. Quarterly Journal of Economics, 122(3), 1235-1264.
Bharadwaj, V. (2007). ICT usage in a 1000 schools in India. Digital Learning, 3(8).
Bhasin, P. (2010, February). The world wants to follow the ICT-driven Indian economy.
Business Standard. Retrieved from http://www.business-standard.com/india/news/the-world-wants-to-follow-ict-driven-indian-economy/385246/
Ertmer, P. A., Addison, P., Lane, M., Ross, E., & Woods, D. (1999). Examining teachers’ beliefs about the role of technology in the elementary classroom. Journal of Research on Computing in Education, 32(1), 54–71.
Glaser, B. G., & Strauss, A. L. (1967). The discovery of grounded theory: Strategies for qualitative research. Chicago: Aldine.
Global e-Schools and Communities Initiative (GESCI). (2008). Towards a national policy on ICT in school education in India: A multi-stake holder perspective. Retrieved from: http://www.gesci.org/assets/files/GESCI%20COMPENDIUM%202008.pdf
Govinda, R. (2007). Education for all in India: Assessing progress towards Dakar goals. Background paper for the Education for All Global Monitoring Report, 2008. Paris: UNESCO.
Hatch, J. A. (2002). Doing qualitative research in education settings. Albany: SUNY Press
Iyer, S. & Baru, M. (2008). Computer curriculum in elementary schools in India. Digital Learning India, Retrieved from: http://www.digitallearning.in/articles/articlee? articleid=2013&typ=COVER%20FEATURE
Jhurreev, V. (2005). Technology integration in education in developing countries:
Guidelines to policy makers. International Education Journal, 6(4), 467- 483.
Kam, M., Kumar, A., Jain, S., Mathur, A., & Canny, J. (2010). Improving literacy in rural India: cellphone games in an after-school program. International Conference on Information Technologies and Development, May 2010, IEEE Conference Proceedings.
Karnati, R. (2008). Computer aided instruction for out-of-school children in India: An impact study in Andhra Pradesh. Ph.D. dissertation, University of Pennsylvania, United States -- Pennsylvania. Retrieved from Dissertations & Theses: A&I.(Publication No. AAT 3309451).
Khare, A., Singh, V., Arora, S., Jain, N., & Verma, A. (2010). Designing competitive strategy using CRM for India primary education. International Journal of Indian Culture and Business, 3(4), 466-487.
Kingdon, G. G. (2007). The progress of school education in India. Oxford Review of Economic Policy, 23(2), 168-195.
Law, N., Pelgrum, W.J. & Plomp, T. (2008). Pedagogy and ICT use in schools around the world: Findings from the IEA SITES 2006 study. Hong Kong: Springer and
Comparative Education Research Center.
Light, D. (2009). The role of ICT in enhancing education in developing countries:
Findings from an evaluation of the Intel teach essentials course in
India, Turkey, and Chile. Journal of Education for International Development, 4(2), 1-15.
Linden, L., & Banerjee, A. V (2003). Computer assisted learning: evidence from a randomized experiment. MIT Poverty Action. Lab Working Paper Series, 5.
Mehta, A. (2005). Elementary education in urban/rural areas: Analytic tables. Where do we stand? New Delhi: NIEPA.
Mehta, A. (2007). Elementary education in unrecognized schools in India: A study of
Punjab based on DISE 2005 data. New Delhi: NIEPA.
Mehra, B., Merkel, C., & Bishop, A. P. (2004). The internet for empowerment of minority and marginalized users. New Media and Society, 6(6), 781-802.
Mehrotra, S. K. (2006). The economics of elementary education in India: The challenge of public finance, private provision, and household costs. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
Ministry of Human Resource Development, Indian Government [MHRD]. (2009a). National mission on education through information and communication technology: Synopsis. Retrieved from: http://www.education.nic.in/dl/SYNOPSIS-NME.pdf
Ministry of Human Resource Development, Indian Government [MHRD]. (2009b). National mission on education through information and communication technology: Mission Document. Retrieved from: http://www.sakshat.ac.in/PDF/Missiondocument.pdf
Ministry of Human Resource Development, Indian Government [MHRD]. (2010). Annual Education Report 2009-2010. Retrieved from: http://education.nic.in/AR/AR2009-10/AR2009-10.pdf.
Mishra, P. & Koehler, M.J. (2006). Technological pedagogical content knowledge: A framework for teacher knowledge. Teachers College Record, 108(6), 1017-1054.
Mishra, P. & Koehler, M.J. (2007). Technological pedagogical content knowledge (TPCK): Confronting the wicked problems of teaching with technology. In C. Crawford, et al (Eds.), Proceedings of Society for Information Technology and Teacher Education International Conference 2007. Chesapeake, VA: AACE.
Mitra, S. (2002). Minimally invasive education: A progress report on the "hole-in-the-wall" experiments. British Journal of Educational Technology, 34(3), 367-371.
National Council of Educational Research and Training [NCERT]. (1988). National curriculum for elementary and secondary education: A framework. New Delhi: NCERT.
National Council of Educational Research and Training [NCERT]. (1998). India: Education policies and curriculum at the upper primary and secondary education levels. New Delhi: NCERT. Retrieved from http://scripts.mit.edu/~varun_ag/readinggroup/images/9/9c/Secondary_Education.pdf
National Council of Educational Research and Training [NCERT]. (2005). National curriculum for elementary and secondary education: The 2005 framework. New Delhi: NCERT.
National Council of Educational Research and Training [NCERT]. (2006). National curriculum framework 2005: Syllabus for classes at the elementary level. New Delhi: NCERT.
National Council on Teacher Education [NCTE]. (2009). National curriculum framework for teacher education: Towards preparing professional and humane teacher. New Delhi: NCTE. Retrieved from http://www.ncte-india.org/publicnotice/NCFTE_2010.pdf
Pal, J. (2003). The developmental promise of information and communications technology in India. Contemporary South Asia, 12, 103-119.
Pal, J. (2008). Computers and the promise of development: Aspiration, neoliberalism, and ‘technolity’ in India’s ICTD enterprise. UNESCO Chair/ ICT4D Collective, Working Papers Series. Retrieved from: http://tier.cs.berkeley.edu.proxy1.cl.msu.edu/tierwiki/media/2/2b/Joyojeet_Pal.pdf
Pal, J. (2009). My child will be respected: Parental perspectives on computers and education in Rural India. Information Systems Frontiers, 11(2), 1387-3326.
Patra, R., Pal, J., Nedevschi, S., Plauche, M., & Pawar, U. (2007). Usage models of classroom computing in developing regions. Proceedings from IEEE 2007: International Conference on Information Technologies and Development.
Pawar, U., Pal, J. & Toyama, K. (2006). Multiple mice for computers in education in developing countries. International Conference on Information Technologies and Development, May 2006, IEEE Conference Proceedings.
Pelgrum, W. J., & Law, N. (2003). ICT in education around the world: Trends, problems and prospects. Paris: UNESCO.
Rogers, P. L. (2000). Barriers to adopting emerging technologies in education. Journal of Educational Computing Research, 22(4), 455–472.
Shulman, L.S. (1988). Disciplines of inquiry in education: An overview. In R.M. Jaeger (Ed.), Complementary methods for research in education (pp. 3-19). Washington, DC: American Educational Research Association.
Staples, A, Pugach, M., & Himes, D. (2005). Rethinking the technology integration challenge: Cases from three urban elementary schools. Journal of Research on Technology in Education, 37(3), 281 – 307.
Suckow, M. (2010). No more boundaries: Sharing best practices in teacher training, retention, and induction in Gujarat, India. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Educational Research Association, 2010 Annual Conference, Denver, CO.
Thirumurthy, V., & Seng-Hoon, A. (1999). Mathematics curriculum in India and Singapore.
Paper presented at the annual meeting of the Association for Childhood Education International Annual Conference, San Antonio, TX.
Thirumurthy, V., & Sundaram, N. (2003). Computers for young children in India. Childhood Education: Annual Theme 2003, 79(5), 307-313.
Umrani-Khan, F. & Iyer, S. (2009). Computer Attitude and Fluency: A Study of Elementary School Students. In I. Gibson et al. (Eds.), Proceedings of Society for Information Technology & Teacher Education International Conference 2009 (pp. 3521-3530). Chesapeake, VA: AACE.
United Nations [UN]. (2002). Implementation of the millennium development goals. New York: United Nations.
UN. (2005). World summit on the information society: Tunis commitment. New York: United Nations
UN. (2008). The global information society: A statistical view. New York: United Nations. Retrieved from http://www.unctad.org/en/docs/LCW190_en.pdf
United Nations Development Program [UNDP]. (2003). Promoting ICT for human development in Asia, realizing the millennium development goals. New Delhi, India: Asia-Pacific Development Program and Human Development Resource Centre. Retrieved from http://www.apdip.net/projects/2003/asian-forum/resources/mdg-ict-matrix.pdf
UNDP. (2010). What will it take to meet the millennium development goals? New York: United Nations. Retrieved from http://content.undp.org/go/cmservice/stream/asset/?asset_id=262007
United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization [UNESCO]. (2005). The quality imperative, Global monitoring report. Paris: UNESCO. Retrieved from http://unesdoc.unesco.org/images/0013/001373/137333e.pdf
UNESCO. (2006). Mapping the global literacy challenge. Chapter 7 in Education for all, global monitoring report. Paris: UNESCO. Retrieved from http://www.unesco.org/en/efareport/reports/2006-literacy/
UNESCO. (2008). The global literacy challenge. Paris: UNESCO. Retrieved from http://unesdoc.unesco.org/images/0016/001631/163170e.pdf
UNESCO. (2009). Guide to measuring information and communication technologies in education. Montreal: UNESCO Institute for Statistics. Retrieved from http://unesdoc.unesco.org/images/0015/001562/156207e.pdf
UNESCO. (2010). Education for all, Global monitoring report. Paris: UNESCO. Retrieved from http://unesdoc.unesco.org/images/0018/001866/186606E.pdf
U.S. Department of Education. (2010). National educational technology plan. Washington, D.C.: Education Publications. Retrieved from http://issuu.com/world.bank.publications/docs/9780821385876/3
Walsham, G. (2010). ICTs for the broader development of India: An analysis of the literature. Electronic Journal of Information Systems in Developing Countries, 41(4), 1-20.
Wilson, M. (2002). Understanding the international ICT and development discourse:
Assumptions and implications. The Southern African Journal of Information and
World Bank. (2003). ICT and MDGs: A world bank perspective. Washington: World Bank
World Bank. (2010). The millennium development goals and the road to 2015: Building on progress and responding to crisis. Washington, D.C: World Bank Publications. Retrieved from http://issuu.com/world.bank.publications/docs/9780821385876/3
The International Education Journal: Comparative Perspectives is the official journal of the Oceania Comparative and International Education Society. The IEJ, (ISSN 1443-1475), publishes a general volume bi-annually in July and December and also publishes Special Editions occasionally. It is a free, open-access scholarly journal, managed by volunteers. There are no article processing charges, or any charges to authors.
In relation to intellectual property, as of 2020, the IEJ: CP claims only first publication rights; copyright of all work published in the journal remains with the authors under Creative Commons copyright license CC-BY-ND (4.0). Author(s) retain all rights to their works, ensuring that reference to the International Education Journal: Comparative Perspectives is clearly stated on any copies made or distribution. Submissions must not involve third parties with a claim to copyright, and be the sole work of the author(s). It is the responsibility of the author(s) to secure permission to reproduce photographs, illustrations, figures or tables. Single images, tables or figures can be re-used . If more than a single image or table are to be re-used authors must attribute first publication to IEJ: CP notify the IEJ: CP Editor. Authors may also make derivative works which are subject to these limitations.
See https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nd/4.0/ for more detail.
Re-distributed or used material must be referenced to the International Education Journal: Comparative Perspectives.