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Submission Preparation Checklist

As part of the submission process, authors are required to check off their submission's compliance with all of the following items, and submissions may be returned to authors that do not adhere to these guidelines.
  • The submission has not been previously published, nor is it before another journal for consideration (or an explanation has been provided in Comments to the Editor). The work is the original work of the Author.
  • The submission file is in Microsoft Word, RTF, or WordPerfect document file format.
  • The text is between 4500 and 6000 words in length (TICK FOR BOOK REVIEWS--not required). It is single-spaced; uses a 12-point font; employs italics, rather than underlining (except with URL addresses); and all illustrations, figures, and tables are placed within the text at the appropriate points, rather than at the end.
  • The text adheres to the stylistic and bibliographic requirements outlined in the Author Guidelines, which is found in About the Journal.
  • TICK FOR BOOK REVIEWS--not required. The text, if submitted to a peer-reviewed section (e.g., Articles), has had the authors' names removed. If an author is cited, 'Author' and year are used in the bibliography and footnotes, instead of author's name, paper title, etc. The author's name has also been removed from the document's Properties, which in Microsoft Word is found in the File menu.
  • TICK FOR BOOK REVIEWS--not required. An abstract summarising the contents and argument of the article has been completed in the space provided.
  • The Author asserts that to their knowledge the Work contains nothing defamatory or libellous. Where the Author has used copyright material in the Work, the Author can provide written acknowledgement of permission to use it.
  • Is this for a special issue? Please note when submitting.

Author Guidelines

Style Sheet for JASAL

Papers submitted to JASAL should conform to the MLA citation and referencing style set out in the Ninth Edition (2021) of the MLA Handbook. Spelling and hyphenation should follow the Macquarie Concise Dictionary, Third Edition (1998).

What follows is an overview of key elements of MLA style. This overview does not include comprehensive guidelines for citing electronic publications. For that information, as well as for other details not found below, authors should consult the MLA Handbook. Information on the MLA style of citation for online documents is also available online from The Columbia Guide to Online Style at and Capital Community College’s online publication, A Guide for Writing Research Papers based on MLA Documentation at


Papers should be 4500 words and not exceed 6000 words in length, excluding references.

Parenthetical Citations

Sources of ideas, quotations and indirect quotations must be indicated in parentheses in the body of the text. A parenthetical reference must include the author’s last name, a space and then the page number or numbers; for example: (Wilson 73). Information that is clear from the body of the text is omitted from the parenthetical citation; for example: Wilson claims . . . (73). If your list of Works Cited includes more than one work by the same author, a comma should be placed after the author’s name followed by a short title—usually the first substantive word of the full title—in similar format to its appearance in the list of Works Cited (italics or in inverted commas); for example, (Miller, Poetics 45).

Works Cited

The bibliography should be restricted to a Works Cited—a documentation of only those works that are referred to in the body of the essay. A Works Cited should begin a new page, be appended to the end of the essay (following any endnotes) and list alphabetically all the sources cited in the essay. Sources should be listed according to the formats illustrated below:


Author’s last name, author’s first name. 'Section of work title'. Title of Work. Ed. Editor’s first, then last name. Place of publication: publishing house, year of publication. Page numbers.


Author’s last name, author’s first name. 'Title of article'. Title of Journal Volume number. Issue number (year): page numbers.

Journal article sourced from an electronic database

Author’s last name, author’s first name. 'Title of article.' Title of Journal Volume number. Issue number (year): page numbers. Name of database. Date accessed .

A Film or Video Recording

Title of film/recording. Dir. Director’s first, then last name. Distributor. Year of release. [You may include additional information after the name of the Director—e.g., the author of the screenplay (Screenplay by…) or the performers (Perf.).]

Television or Radio Program

Title of episode or segment, if appropriate (in quotation marks). Title of program (in italics). Title of series, if any (neither quotation marks nor italics). Name of network. Call letter of local station, if any). Broadcast date.

Internet Source

Author’s last name, author’s first name. 'Title of article'. Type of document, date posted. Date accessed .

Further explanatory details are provided in the list below. This list is in the order in which information should appear in the entry in your Works Cited; if any item of information is not relevant, proceed to the next item.

1. Author’s name as it appears on the title page of the work—last name first, followed by a comma, the full first name, then a full stop. For example: Brett, Lilly. If there is more than one author, list subsequent authors with their first names first, placing a comma after each author’s name and a full stop after the last one (see example list).

2. Title of a non-separately-published work (section of a book, article in a journal, episode in a television series, and so on) are placed in quotation marks, followed by a full stop outside the closing quotation marks. For example: 'The Wasteland'. or 'Masculinity and Femininity'. Use Title Case for all titles.

3. Title of the book or journal, in italics (not underlined). For example: Westerly or Selected Poems. Book titles are followed by a full stop; journal titles are not followed by a full stop. Use Title Case.

4. For articles in journals, place the volume number, a full stop, then the issue number of the journal after the title of the journal (if the journal does not paginate each issue separately, the volume number alone will suffice). Notice that there is no full stop after the title of a journal before the volume/issue number/s. For example: Ornicar 5.8. For journals or magazines that do not use issue numbers but are only identified by their date of issue, use this date in place of the volume number. For example: Landscope September 2002.

5. For journals, after the volume and issue numbers leave a space and then put the year of publication in parentheses, followed by a colon, two spaces and the page number/s, followed by a full stop. For example: 3.2 (1989): 34-98. There is no need to repeat the year if the issue is identified by its date.

6. For books, name (first name then last name) of editor or translator preceded by the abbreviation 'Ed.' or 'Trans.' For example: Ed. Carole Ferrier or Trans. Alan Sheridan. There is one space between the full stop after the abbreviation and the first name of the editor/translator.

7. For books, you may cite the edition used, followed by a full stop. For example: 2nd ed.

8. For books, you may cite the number of volumes or Volume number. For example: 3 Vols. (three volumes in the series) or Vol. 3. (the third volume in the series).

9. Name of the series (optional), followed by a full stop. For example: Penguin Classics.

10. For books, cite the place of publication, a colon, one space, the name of the publisher. For example: London: Oxford UP (always use U for University and P for Press).

11. For books, after the publisher add a comma, a space and the year of publication, followed by a full stop. For example: London: Oxford UP, 1999.

12. For a chapter of a book leave two spaces after the full stop and put the page number/s, followed by a full stop. For example: London: Oxford UP, 1999. 23-36.

13. For sources accessed through electronic databases, follow the usual bibliographical information with the title of the database in italics, followed by a full stop. For example: Proquest.

14. For other electronic sources, follow the title with the type of work, one space, and the date posted followed by a full stop. For example: Working Paper June 2002.

15. For all electronic sources, leave two spaces after the full stop and follow this by the date you accessed the work, one space, and the complete URL, followed by a full stop. For example: Working Paper June 2002. 13 January 2003 <http://www. . . . .html>.

Example of List of Works Cited

Works Cited

Allende, Isabel.  'Toad’s Mouth'.  Trans.  Margaret Sayers Peden.  A Hammock Beneath Mangoes:  Stories from Latin America.  Ed. Thomas Colchie.  New York:  Plume, 1992.  38-88.

American Beauty.  Dir. Sam Mendes.  Perf. Kevin Spacey, Annette Bening, Thora Birth, Wes Bentley, Mena Suvan.  Dream Works, 1999.

The Buccaneers.  By Edith Wharton.  Adapt. Maggie Wadey.  Perf. Mira Sovino, Alison Elliott, and Carla Gugino.  3 episodes.  Masterpiece Theatre.  Introd. Russell Baker.  PBS.  WGBH, Boston.  27 Apr. – 11 May 1997.

Cotter, Maria, Bill Boyd, and Jane Gardiner, eds.  Heritage Landscapes:  Understanding Place and Communities.  Lismore: Southern Cross UP, 2001.

Cramer, J., L. Rado, and J. Walker.  'Athletic Heroes and Heroines'.  Journal of Sport Behaviour 4.4 (1981): 175-85.

Foucault, Michel.  Discipline and Punish: The Birth of the Prison.  Trans. Alan Sheridan.  London: Penguin, 1991.

'Frankenstein: The Making of the Monster'.  Great Books.  Narr. Donald Sutherland.  Writ. Eugenie Vink.  Dir. Jonathan Ward.  Learning Challen.  8 Sept. 1993.

Judge, Joan.  'Key Words in the Late Qing Reform Discourse: Classical and Contemporary Sources of Authority'. Working paper, 30 June 2002.  17 July 2003

Markwell, Kevin.  'Mardi Gras Tourism and the Construction of Sydney as an International Gay and Lesbian City'. Journal of Lesbian and Gay Studies 8.4 (2002): 81-99.  Project Muse GLQ.  2 February 2003 gay_studies/.

Quotations must follow the original text exactly.  Square brackets should be used for interpellations (clarifications, emphases, signals of error in the original).

Whenever you wish to omit a word, a phrase, a sentence, or more from a quoted passage you should use ellipses.  You should be guided by two principles: fairness to the author quoted and the grammatical integrity of your writing.  A quotation should never be presented in a way that could cause a reader to misunderstand the sentence structure of the original source.  This will sometimes mean that you will need to consult section 3.7.5 on page 114-18 of the Sixth Edition of the MLA Handbook.

Indicate such omissions by using three full stops, with a space between each full stop.  End punctuation of a sentence or clause should precede the ellipses.

As Brennan wrote:  'The colonial girl could ride a horse . . . sew a skirt, boil a billy [she did this many times], . . . and give a wayward [emphasis added] husband good measure for his trouble'(34).

Short Quotations
Quotations less than four lines in length should not be indented, but included in your running text and enclosed within quotation marks.  

Alex Sheppard describes Ken Slessor as 'an experienced journalist who understood the limitations and responsibilities to a point which surprised [him]' (McCrae 255).

Long Quotations
Quotations of four lines or more should be indented and not enclosed in quotation marks.  Indented quotations are normally introduced by a colon.  Notice that there is no full stop after a long quote’s parenthetical citation.

Writing to Norman Lindsay, McCrae said:
I had a visitor the other day in the person of young Slessor:  a boy not yet twenty-one [actually he was by three days] who writes leading-articles for the Sun and is so well-paid that he was enabled to turn down the editorship of Art in Australia.
His presence is hardly a pleasing one, but . . . he writes like an angel.  (McCrae 57)

Punctuation in Quotations
•    Smart quotes (‘text’ or “text”) should be used, not straight quotes.  All quotes should be enclosed by single quotation marks except for quotes within quotes, which should be enclosed by double quotation marks.

•    Whether or not the quote is set off from the body of the text, it is usually preceded by a colon if it is formally introduced and by a comma or no punctuation if it is an integral part of the text.

•    Commas and periods that directly follow quotations go inside the closing quotation marks, but if there is a parenthetical citation after the quotation, then end punctuation follows the parenthesis.

•    If a quotation ends with both single and double quotation marks, the comma or period precedes both:  'Read "Upstairs, Downstairs,"' she told me.

•    Semicolons, colons, question marks and exclamation marks go outside a closing quotation mark, except when they are part of the quoted material.

The full title of any work published separately should be italicised:  books, plays, long poems, periodicals, newspapers, films, paintings, TV series, recordings.  The title of any work published as part of another work should be enclosed in single quotation marks:  poems, short stories, essays, articles, book chapters, TV or radio episodes.  Titles of sacred works (New Testament), publishing series (Portable Australian Authors), editions series (Signet Classics), courses (Cultures, Identities, Texts) should not be italicised or placed in quotation marks.

Illustrations, such as photographs, maps, graphs and pictures, should be labelled as Figure 1., Figure 2., Figure 3. below the illustration.  A title/ caption should be placed after the figure number, beginning with a capital letter and ending with a full stop (do not use all capital letters).  The source of the illustration should be indicated either in the text or beneath the caption to enable the reader to locate the work from which the illustration is taken in the Works Cited.  Illustrations must all be attributed correctly and copyright must be sought if necessary.

Tables should be labelled Table 1, Table 2, Table 3, and so on, above the table with no full stop after the numeral.  There should be a caption or title directly below the table heading, beginning with a capital letter and ending with a full stop (do not use all capital letters).  If the source has not been given in the text, give it below the table.  Notice that there is no full stop after the caption, but there is a full stop after the source.

Full names (first and last names) should be used on the first occasion and only the last name on subsequent occasions.  For authors, the name under which they publish should be used:  George Eliot, Anais Nin, ee cummings.

Words should be used for numbers one to ten; numerals for numbers 11 and beyond.  When stating a range of numbers  between zero and 99, the numbers should be stated in full (36-89, 1-23).  When stating a range of numbers beyond 99, only the last two digits of the final number should be given unless more are necessary for comprehension (256-58, 1004-56, 348-1009).

Day, month, year should be used without punctuation:  28 June 2001.  Lower case should be used for centuries and decades:  seventeenth century, the fifties and sixties.  Numerals are permitted but with NO APOSTROPHE:  1890s, 1950s.


In-text parenthetical citations mean that there is rarely a need to use footnotes or endnotes for bibliographic references.  Endnotes should only be used to expand on some point made in the text or to add information that doesn’t 'fit' in the text.  There should be no bibliographic endnotes and few, if any, expansion/extra information endnotes.  

Number notes consecutively, starting from 1.  Use Arabic numerals (1, 2, 3), not Roman numerals or any other symbols.  Format note numbers as raised slightly above the line (for example:1), and do not follow the numbers with full stops or any other punctuation marks.  The numbers must be placed after the punctuation marks in a sentence, except for dashes.  Often it is best to position note numbers at the end of a sentence, so as not to disrupt the flow of the sentence.

S or Z?
Please use s, not z for word endings—for example, realise, not realize.  More generally, use Australian spelling as per the Macquarie Dictionary.

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